How to Build a Built-in Bookcase
Updated: Apr. 13, 2023
No complex wood joints, no tricky techniques—simply glue, screw and nail the parts together
Learn how to use inexpensive materials like birch plywood and standard trim to build a classic, built-in wooden bookcase.
Project overview of built in bookshelves
Photo 1: Measure the room for a window seat bookshelf
Measure the width of your room and the height of the ceiling. Also check the window placement. Our room was almost 12 ft. wide with an 8-ft. ceiling, and the window was very close to the center. If there’s no window, just build the built in bookshelves into the center section. Find more bookshelf plans and designs that you’ll want to see.
You would have loved the library in my old hometown. Its beautifully paneled wood built in bookshelves were as inspirational as the books they held. This handsome bookcase features those same classic elements—the curved brackets, column-like partitions and crown molding. Now you can add them to your living room or study with this simply designed bookcase project.
You can build this built-in bookcase by following our clear drawings and step-by-step photos, or use these techniques to modify the dimensions for your own space. The partitions shown in Photos 8 and 9 can be placed wall to wall as shown or can stop halfway into a room and then finish off on the open side. Or you can extend the length by building additional partitions and shelves.
This built in bookcases project is made from hardwood plywood, 2x6s, hardwood boards and standard moldings available at home centers and lumberyards. We chose birch boards and plywood along with maple moldings and then used a gel stain to give the project a cherry wood appearance four our built in bookcases. You’ll notice we’ve also rubbed away stain to create highlights for an antique look. The materials we used are listed in the Shopping List (see Additional Information) and illustrated in Figure A. You can preassemble nearly all the parts of this modular-type project in your garage or shop and carry them into your room for assembly.
Figure A: Bookcase Details
This cutaway drawing of construction details shows how to construct the built-in bookcase. See Additional Information for a printable PDF of Figure A, along with a complete Cutting List and Shopping List.
Video: DIY Hiding Place From Old Books
The sandwich-style partitions
Photo 2: Assemble the sides
Glue and nail the plywood sides (B) to straight 2x6s (A) ripped to 4 in. wide. Leave a 2-in. gap at the back and a 3/4-in. gap in the front. Next, glue and nail the front 3/4-in. plywood piece (C) so it’s flush with the sides. Make all four partitions exactly alike and be sure the pieces are all cut 1-1/4 in. less than your ceiling height. Let the glue dry for a couple of hours before assembling.
Photo 3: Drill shelf pin holes
Measure 12 in. down from the top of your partition and drill 1/4-in. holes, 1/2 in. deep, every 2 in. to accept the shelf pins. Ensure accuracy by making a drill guide from a steel strip, available at your hardware store. Mark one end with paint so you always know which end goes up, then drill three 1/16-in. holes evenly along the length so you can use brad nails to attach the guide to your work surface. You can also buy predrilled guides at home centers or woodworking stores, or simply use strips of pegboard.
Fasten the steel drilling guide 12-in. up from the bottom.
Shelf pin drilling guide
Mark and drill the strip with a 1/4-in. twist bit and you’ve got a great jig you can use for future projects.
Cut your plywood lengthwise to the dimensions in the Cutting List (see Additional Information) to make your exterior partition skin. Equip your circular saw with a new, thin-kerf 40-tooth carbide blade. Use a long cutting guide clamped to the plywood sheet to guide your saw for straight cuts. Also rip straight 8-ft. 2x6s to 4-in. widths with your table saw for the core of each partition. NOTE: Buy your 2x6s about a week in advance and bring them inside to dry out and adjust. You may have some that’ll warp or twist as they adjust to the dry environment inside the house, so buy a couple of extra pieces just in case.
Assemble the partitions on a flat surface as shown in Photo 2 and then set them aside for the glue to dry. Once the glue is dry, drill the 1/4-in. holes for the shelf pins as shown in Photo 3.
Notice the 2-in. gap at the back of the sandwich. This is crucial. It’ll allow you to slip the partitions over cleats attached to the wall with room to spare, as shown in Photo 7. TIP: The extra 1/2 in. of space between the cleat on the wall and the recess in the partition is convenient for running wiring for low-voltage lights in the soffits of the bookcase. We were just storing books, so the lighting wasn’t necessary.
Save time: Preassemble the shelves while the glue sets for the partitions
Photo 4: Build the shelves
Glue and nail 1/2-in. thick hardwood strips on the backside of the shelf (E) and 1-1/8 in. decorative molding to the front (F). An 18-gauge air nailer is worth buying or renting for this task. You can nail the molding as you align it without the possibility of it shifting, not to mention you’ll be done in less than a tenth of the time required for ordinary nailing.
While the glue is drying on the partitions, it’s a good idea to get other parts cut and ready to assemble. Start with the shelves. From measuring the room in Photo 1, you’ll have a good sense of the shelf length. Make them all about an inch or more too long and trim them later for an exact fit. By making the shelves a bit long, you don’t have to fuss with perfectly aligning the moldings on the front and back of the shelf as you glue and nail them together. Also, save time by forming an assembly line. NOTE: Don’t make these shelves more than 42 in. long or they may noticeably sag. Our shelves are 39 in. long.
The 1/2-in. anti-sag cleat glued to the rear of the shelf is not a stock item, but you can make it on a table saw. First cut 1-1/2 in. wide strips from a wider board. Then tip this piece on end and cut the 3/4-in. width down to 1/2 in. This step is called resawing and can be tricky because the workpiece gets narrow. Use a push stick to keep your fingers clear of the blade. If this is beyond your adventurous spirit, have the lumberyard folks cut it for you for a nominal fee, and stick to the fun parts of the project. And don’t forget, while you’re resawing (or having someone else do it), make parts Q.
The front molding of the shelf (5/8 in. thick and 1-1/8 in. wide) covers the nasty plywood edge and also stiffens the shelf. This molding came from a local home center. Match it with the profile shown in Fig. A or feel free to use any similar profile with the same dimensions.
Trace the curved brackets using the grid method
Photo 5: Cut the brackets
Trace the brackets (K) from the dimensional grid in Fig. A and cut them out carefully with a jigsaw. Sand the curve smooth with 100-grit sandpaper followed by 150-grit sandpaper.
Mark your first bracket (K) on a piece of 1×8. First lay out a 1-in. square grid on the 1×8, then mark the shape intersections with the grid and draw a smooth line connecting the dots. Once the lines are drawn, cut out the shape with a jigsaw and use your first cutout as a template for the rest. Smooth the curve with a drum sander or sanding block.
The partition faces are like super-narrow face frames on cabinets
Photo 6: Build the partition faces
Cut the long stiles (G) of the face frame and nail them with 8d finish nails to the short rails (H and J). Use a drill bit to make a pilot hole slightly smaller than the diameter of the nail. Set the nails and fill the recesses with matching putty later.
Because they’re so narrow and don’t have to support weight as real cabinet face frames do, you can just nail the face frame parts together as shown in Photo 6 and Fig. A. Once they’re nailed, you’ll need to sand the front and back completely flat to get them to lie nicely against the partition fronts. The tool of choice for this is a random orbital sander. You can start with 80-grit paper and finish with 150-grit.
Glue and screw the partition cleats to your wall
Photo 7: Attach wall cleats
Fasten the wall cleats to your drywall with wall anchors and construction adhesive. We used a screw-in anchor with a 3-in. No. 8 deck screw. Use a level to get the first cleat perfectly plumb, then use your tape measure to place the remaining cleats.
In this article, we’re assuming you have wood or tile floors, but if you have carpeting, you’ll need to roll it back, remove the tackless strip, and then stretch and trim it later. We’ve also assumed that most of you have drywall over wood studs, but if you don’t, use the right anchor for your wall, whether it’s concrete, brick or plaster. If you have drywall with wood framing, you probably won’t hit a stud as you try to screw the partition cleats to the wall (Photo 7).
Before fastening the wall cleats, screw a 1×2 cleat to the ceiling so the front edge is 10-1/2 in. from the back wall. This cleat serves two purposes: It helps support the partition and works as a cleat for the fascia (Photo 9). Our ceiling joists ran perpendicular to the wall, so we could get a solid connection into the ceiling every 16 in. (your joists may be 24 in. on center). If the joists are running parallel to the back wall, you’ll need to use anchors and construction adhesive.
Next, drill four 3/16-in. diameter holes along the length of each wall cleat, plumb the cleat into position and then drive a nail through the holes to mark the anchor locations in the drywall. Screw in your wall anchors and then smear construction adhesive on the backside of the cleat and screw it to the wall. Measure top and bottom to the next cleat to ensure they’ll be parallel. Install the rest in the same manner. NOTE: Keep the end wall cleats 1-1/8 in. from adjacent side walls.
Slip the partitions over the wall cleats and screw them into place
Photo 8: Tip the column partitions into place
Fasten the partitions to the cleats with 2-in. screws (3 and 6 in. from the ceiling and the floor, respectively). They’ll be hidden later by the upper soffit and lower base of the bookcase. Use a framing square to make sure the partitions are square to the back wall, then fasten them to the ceiling cleat with 2-in. steel angle supports.
Photo 9: Install the fascia
Cut each fascia piece (P) to fit snugly between the partitions. Cut and fit the cleats (N) as well. Screw the fascia to the ceiling cleat with 1-5/8 in. wood or deck screws.
Carry the partitions into the room and tip them up carefully to avoid scarring the ceiling. The partitions are fastened only at the top and bottom, as mentioned in Photo 8, so the screwheads will be covered by other parts later. Once the partition is fastened to the cleat, screw the angle brackets to the partitions at the top and bottom 10 in. from the back wall as shown in Photo 9. Use a framing square to ensure the partitions are perpendicular to the back wall. Once the partition is perfectly aligned, drive a screw through the brackets into the ceiling cleat and then into the bracket on the floor.
Install cleats to hold the fascia, soffit and base shelf in place
Before you screw the fascia pieces (P) between the partitions, screw a 1×2 cleat (N1 and N2) to the backside of each fascia 3/4 in. up from the bottom. Next, fasten the matching wall cleats parallel to the fascia cleat against the back wall. To finish the top of each section, cut the soffit pieces R and nail them to the cleats.
Screw 1×2 strips (U1) to the bottom of the partitions and make center floor supports (V) from scrap plywood to support the lower base shelves (Photo 15). If you have a floor heat register, remove the cover and install an extension boot (Photo 17).
Dressing up the plain boxes with the right trim makes all the difference
Photo 10: Fasten the fillets, brackets and bracket supports
Cut the fillets (Q1 through Q4) on a table saw. Sand each piece (100 grit) to soften the sharp edges. Cut and nail each piece into place with a small finish nailer. Glue and nail the brackets (K) below the fascia and fillet. Cut the lower bracket supports (S), center them below the brackets and fillet, and glue and nail them to the partition sides with the air nailer.
Photo 11: Cut the face frames
Cut the tops off each face frame 5-1/2 in. from the top to make room for the column fillets (Q4). Make the cuts perfectly square.
Photo 12: Add the rest of the face frame
Center the face frames evenly on the front of the partitions, then glue and nail them to the plywood partition fronts. Glue the fillet (Q4) in place and then glue and nail the top section of the face frame to the top of the partition.
Photo 13: Add crown molding
Cut and nail the crown molding to finish the joints along the ceiling. Cut and glue small pieces of wood to fill the gaps on the side of each partition behind the face frame.
Photo 14: Crown molding tip
Cut your crown molding more safely and accurately by positioning the molding upside down on the miter saw bed. Mark the pieces so you can see the mark and slowly cut through the piece. Let the saw fall through the molding. Don’t force the saw or hurry the cut.
Photo 15: Attach base molding and cleats
Cut and nail the base molding to wrap around the face frame and partition sides. Note that you’ll need small fillets to fill the gaps in the same way as you did at the top under the crown molding returns. Screw in cleats (U) 6-1/4 in. from the floor on the side of each partition. Also screw the floor cleats (V) to the floor to support the center of each base shelf (R).
Start by nailing the fillet trim (Q1 and Q2) on the bottom of the fascia. The fillet is wider than the fascia, so center it so it extends equally on the front and back of the fascia. Next, glue each bracket (K) to the partition side and nail it to the partition and to the fillet above. Working your way down the side, continue with the small fillet (Q3). Glue this small piece to the bottom of the bracket with carpenter’s glue. Cut the bracket supports to fit between the fillet and the floor to support the curved bracket. These supports are designed to nestle the shelves and hide the gaps between the shelf ends and the partition sides. Cut the center seat (Photo 17) and fit the brackets and fillets underneath as shown in Fig. A (the seat height is 22 in.).
Cut the partition face frames as shown in Photo 11 and fasten them to the partitions. Notice that the plywood front of the partition becomes the background for the face frame. It’s not necessary to get a tight fit against the ceiling because the crown molding will cover the ceiling joint and the exposed screws along the top of the fascia.
Crown molding can be fussy, so buy an extra piece of molding (you can always return the unused piece). The small pieces can be a bit challenging if the ceiling is irregular. The key is to cut the pieces uniformly. Draw a line right on the bed of your miter saw and always align the molding edge with the saw. Small gaps at the joints can be filled with putty and sanded, so don’t drive yourself nuts seeking perfection against a ceiling that’s not. Don’t bother coping the crown pieces (Photo 13), because they’ll be tough to fit; miter them instead.
Fitting the base and making a secret compartment
Photo 16: Build the secret panel
Assemble the “removable” secret-panel base section to create a secret storage box under the base shelf. Keep the base panel in place with a cabinet magnet catch fastened to the side of the support piece (V).
How to open the panel
Open your secret storage by prying it with a pocket knife or putty knife.
Photo 17: Build the window seat
Assemble the window seat by screwing cleats (U2) to the sides of each center partition and then nailing the seat to the cleats. Note: The seat is reinforced below by front and rear supports glued to the underside of the seat before it is nailed in place. Glue molding to the front of the seat, then nail the seat brackets and fillets in place as shown in Fig. A.
This project will tie in with the rest of the room better if you replace your existing base molding and carry it through along the bottom of the bookcase. We made a two-piece base with 1×6 capped with bifold stop for the top member. To create a small gap between the two base pieces (Photo 16 and Fig. A), we chamfered the top edge of the 1×6 and the bottom edge of the bifold stop slightly with a block plane. This lends a traditional custom molding look.
To create the secret compartment panels, cut some 12-in. blocks and glue them to the back of the 1×6 base pieces and nail the stop molding to the blocks (see Fig. A). Glue a pair of small blocks to the backside of parts S to create a stop for the secret panels. Install a magnetic cabinet latch to the center base shelf support (V) to hold the secret panel in place.
Fill all the nail holes, then sand and finish the bookcase
Sand the bookcase with 100-grit sandpaper followed by 150-grit. Paint the bookcase if you’d like or create the handsome antique finish we did. We used gel stain and mixed five parts cherry to two parts red mahogany to one part special walnut. Blend these in a separate container and apply them to the sanded surface with a clean rag. Apply enough to cover, and remove the excess after a few minutes. Gently remove just enough stain to enhance the grain pattern. A dry brush works to get the excess stain out of the corners. You can rub a bit more aggressively if you’d like to reveal some highlights or simulate wear. Let the stain dry and finish the cabinet with two coats of polyurethane varnish. If you want a different design, then here are a few tips for building a wooden ladder shelf.
Required Tools for this Project
Have the necessary tools for this DIY project lined up before you start—you’ll save time and frustration.
For a complete list of materials, see the Shopping List in Additional Information.
Originally Published: August 27, 2019