How to Plant and Grow a Tulip Tree
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Tulip trees offer year-round shade, beautiful flowers and stunning fall foliage. Consider growing this ornamental tree if it thrives in your region.
Prized for their fast growth, height and ornamental features, tulip trees are a popular shade tree, especially throughout the Eastern U.S. In fact, these hardy, easy-to-care-for trees are the state tree of Indiana, Kentucky and Tennessee!
But while the tulip tree’s attractive spring flowers and colorful fall foliage are appealing, they aren’t ideal for every region. Read on to learn where tulip trees thrive, how to grow them and how to care for them.
What Is a Tulip Tree?
Tulip trees (also known as tulip poplars) are one of the largest trees native to North America, growing to 100 feet tall. Fun fact: Sometimes they grow as much as 24 inches in one year!
Despite the name, these trees aren’t related to tulip flowers, but are a member of the magnolia family. They got their name from the tulip-like orange and yellow flowers that bloom during spring in the upper canopy of mature trees (15 years and older). These aromatic flowers attract pollinators, especially bees and hummingbirds, and the tree itself is host to the beautiful snowtail butterfly.
After blooming, the flowers leave behind a cone-shaped fruit (samaras) that releases winged seeds. In the fall, the leaves turn golden yellow.
Where Do Tulip Trees Thrive?
Tulip trees thrive in full sun, but can suffer if exposed to extreme heat. They prefer a moist, temperate climate, and are hardy in regions where average minimum temperatures are above -30 degrees F, like USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 4 through 9.
They prefer moist, slightly acidic, well-draining soil, and are intolerant of drought. Insufficient moisture can cause leaves to discolor or fall prematurely. Tulip trees also are intolerant of salt, making them mostly unsuitable for coastal locations and places where road salt is used nearby.
Tulip trees have brittle branches that become increasingly inflexible as they age. Because the branches are susceptible to breaking, it’s best if they are not subjected to high winds or other conditions that could damage them.
How to Care for a Tulip Tree
Water. Consider providing supplemental irrigation of five to seven gallons per week, especially during the summer and early fall. You can also water when the top three inches of soil are dry.
Fertilize. Tulip trees don’t require fertilization, but it can be beneficial in some cases. Fertilizing a newly planted tulip tree for its first few years can promote healthy growth, and fertilizing mature trees can promote flowering. Apply a fertilizer formulated for acidic soil in early spring, and again mid-spring if flower development is slow.
Mulch. Apply a two- to four-inch layer of mulch around the tree’s base for moisture retention.
Pest control. Tulip trees are susceptible to infestation from tulip-tree aphids and tulip-tree scales. Tulip-tree aphids are small pink or green insects. Tulip-tree scales are roughly 1/4-inch-long insects with green or orange-pink bodies. Both pests feed on plant sap in large colonies, and leave a sticky residue called honeydew on the tree’s leaves. Eliminate these pests as early as possible with insecticide or predator insects like lady beetles or pirate bugs.
Disease control. Tulip trees are prone to developing cankers, which are discolored depressions or deformities that can result from fungal or bacterial infections. When identified, remove the entire affected branch and sterilize the cutting tool’s blade after each cut to prevent spreading the infection. If the infection is severe, consider using a fungicide or bactericide.
How to Prune a Tulip Tree
Because tulip trees are fast-growing and produce fragile branches, periodic pruning is essential for ensuring healthy, safe growth. Prune annually between early winter and early spring (before the first flowers have formed) with pruning sheers or a pole pruner.
Consider hiring a professional arborist if the tree is too large to make safe and controlled cuts from the ground or a ladder. Generally you’ll need a pro for trees taller than 15 feet tall, perhaps shorter if the tree is near structures or power lines.
- Thin out dense clusters of branches to allow wind to pass through and prevent branches from breaking.
Trim branches with crotch angles (the pocket between branch or limb connections) less than 35 degrees. These tend to break off when exposed to strong winds.
Remove dead branches.
Trim back or remove branches that detract from the desired shape and balance of the tree.
Remove diseased branches as soon as they’re discovered, regardless of the time of year. Sterilize the blade of your cutting tool between cuts to prevent disease spread.
How to Propagate a Tulip Tree
Propagating From Seeds
Tulip tree seeds can be harvested in the fall from the tree’s samaras. These seeds can be used to propagate tulip trees the following spring.
Pick samaras after they turn a light beige color. Keep them in a dry place for a few days to allow the seeds to separate naturally from the fruit.
Tulip seeds require stratification. That means you need to replicate the conditions they experience in their natural environment before they will germinate. Keep them in a moist, cold place for 60 to 90 days, or until spring.
After the last frost, transfer the seeds into nursery pots filled with slightly acidic potting soil, or sow directly into the ground in an area with well-draining, slightly acidic soil. Bury the seeds no deeper than three times the length of the seed.
Keep the soil moist, but do not over water to avoid mold or rotting the seed.
Propagating From Cuttings
In the fall, cut an 18-in. or larger branch behind the swollen section where the branch attaches to the tree.
Apply rooting hormone to the cut end.
Fill a nursery pot with potting soil and insert the cut end about eight inches into the soil.
Cover the cutting with plastic to promote humid conditions.
Place the pot in a protected area with indirect light.
After about a month, verify that roots are developing by gently tugging on the cutting and feeling for resistance.
Keep the pot in the protected location until the following spring, then transplant into the ground after the last frost.