13 DIY Home Improvements You May Not Know You Need a Permit For
If you're getting ready to start a DIY project, then chances are you've been going through a mental or physical checklist to make sure you've covered everything that's required. But, did you know that even simple projects can sometimes require a building permit? What follows is a list of common tasks that require permits in many locations. Because permit requirements are determined on a municipal basis, you'll need to check with your local building department about what applies to you.
Many people assume that something as straightforward as a new fence can be done without a permit, and in some cities that’s true. However, others require permitting and prebuild evaluations before starting work. Some municipalities have requirements about the height, material or aesthetics of the fence while others simply want to make sure that the fence posts are seated properly. Check these pro tips on how to dig a posthole the right way and make sure your job doesn’t stall out at the footer inspection.
Much like fences, a retaining wall can be a fairly simple build. In fact, many DIYers can set up a retaining wall over a weekend. But keep in mind that some municipalities require pulling the permit before starting work on any hardscaping over a certain size. The inspector will often be looking to make sure you’re taking water drainage into consideration, and that you won’t be flooding your neighbors yard or setting yourself up for a collapse down the road. For the low-down on building a long-lasting retaining wall, check out this in-depth Family Handyman article.
Many locations require permits for new roofs, and some even require one for patches over a certain size. This is one project where you definitely don’t want to skip a required permit, as any roofing work is usually noticeable from the street! Taking a few minutes to check in with your building department before you begin work might save you a lot of aggravation down the road. Once you have the all clear, here’s how to roof a house the Family Handyman way.
Adding Electrical Outlets
Many DIYers are surprised by how stringent municipalities can be when it comes to requiring permits for basic wiring. Even in states where you don’t need to be a licensed electrician to work on your own home, you are often still required to pull a permit. As a general rule of thumb, any electrical work that involves working behind the drywall will require a permit. Adding an outlet is a good example; although it’s not terribly complicated, and many DIYers have the skills to do it right, it may be illegal to do so without a permit. And if you put yourself in the building department’s shoes, you really can’t blame them. After all, if there is an electrical fire, all eyes will be on them. Once you have your permit, here are 27 tips to ensure you do good work on your outlet installation.
Need a refresh on electrical basics before installing your outlet? Check out DIY University’s Basic Skills for Electrical Basics to hone your electrical skills.
Window and Door Replacement
Permits are almost always required for installing a new residential window or exterior door where there wasn’t one before. But did you know that some municipalities require a permit for a straight replacement, as well? Many building departments simply require that the replacement matches the dimensions of the existing door or window, while others insist on a specific look or material match. Just like roofing, this is another area that is noticeable from the street, so it’s not a job you want to start without pulling the necessary paperwork. Here are some great tips on pulling off a successful window replacement.
Work in the Right-of-Way
Work in the public right-of-way often requires a permit, to make sure that you’re not intruding on city or other residential property. This includes anything involving a sidewalk cut, or work that will obstruct a public alley roadway.
Essentially, even though the finished product may be your property (and will be your responsibility to maintain) if you’ll be modifying or tying up public space during construction, you may need a street-use permit. This means you’ll want to dot all your Is and cross all your Ts when it comes to filling out the required forms, whether you’re running a drain line to the gutter or installing an asphalt driveway.
Your house does not exist in a bubble! Much like a project that falls into the right-of-way, a project involving the easement (which is the section around your property which can legally be crossed or used for another purpose) often requires a permit. This is to make sure you aren’t building directly on top of your neighbor’s property, and to ensure sufficient room for city utility service. Some municipalities go so far as to actually require surveys before work is done within a certain distance of your property line, while others will let you by with using the most recent survey on record.
Once again, it is especially important to have the proper permits for exterior work, as it is visible, and if you are not friendly with your neighbors, easily reported. If you want to brush up on topics like easements and surveys, here are 26 real estate terms you need to know before buying a house.
Sheds and outbuildings are usually simple structures. Many municipalities will allow construction of them without a permit, so long as they are within certain guidelines as to height, footprint and distance from property lines. If you decide to run utilities, such as water and electricity to your shed, you’re much more likely to need a permit. Depending on the climate where you live, and the amount of frost-driven ground heave, there may also be footers or other foundation requirements. When you’re ready to get started, here are some helpful DIY shed building tips.
Want to build a new shed, but aren’t sure where to start? DIY University offers How to Build a Backyard Shed with an expert available to answer your questions and guide you through the shed building process!
You’ve probably noticed that many of these project that require permits involve exterior work. While many people understand that work in the home may require permits, exterior work sometimes feels more like fun than actual renovation. A great example of this is changing the grading of your property.
Once again, the scope of the work is important here. If you’re spreading soil along the side of your home in order to help prevent a damp basement, you’re probably fine. If, however, you are bringing in a truckload of soil to elevate a section of your yard, you’re more likely to run into permit issues. This is especially true if all that rainwater is now going to be channeled into your neighbor’s basement.
Permits for things like grading are usually not difficult to obtain, and at most require a sketch so that city engineers can make sure you are not creating a bigger problem than the one you’re solving. As always, play it safe and check to see if a permit is required before starting work. And once you’re clear to start work, here’s some tips for improving your yard’s drainage.
Almost all municipalities allow for “stabilization” without a permit. In other words, if a tree limb punches a hole in your roof and you patch it with a piece of plywood and a tarp, no one is going to complain. However, once you’re ready to make the permanent repair, you almost always have to go through the regular permit procedure. The good news is that many areas allow for expedited permits for emergency repairs, or even allow work to begin while the permit is still in process.
Again, this is one of those times when it’s good to remember that the building department is run by human beings who are sympathetic to homeowners in a bad position. As long as you keep them apprised of the situation, you can almost always make the system work for you. (Pro tip: when doing an emergency repair, snap several photos so that you can show why it was needed, just in case!) And if that limb really did a number on your roof, here’s how to find and repair roof leaks.
It’s probably no surprise that you need a permit and a licensed plumber to work on gas lines. After all, improperly installed or repaired gas lines pose a hazard not only to you and your family, but to the entire neighborhood. If you have any doubts, just do an internet search for “gas line explosions” to get a first-hand visualization of how catastrophically wrong sloppy work can go.
But what might come as a surprise is that in some cities, even installing a gas stove onto an existing gas line may require a permit or licensed installer. These municipalities are in the minority, but they tend to have one thing in common: there was a gas line explosion sometime in their recent past. Because of the extreme nature and high visibility of a gas explosion, part of the fallout is often a crackdown on anything that could potentially go wrong. When buying a gas stove, ask the salesperson at the store what’s required.
Even if your location does not require a permit, if you’re not comfortable working on gas lines, it may a good idea to bring in a pro to take care of the installation. If you’re ready to tackle it yourself, here’s how to Install a gas stove – without dangerous leaks.
While a basement remodel is a great DIY project, especially if it was originally unfinished, it still requires that you go through any necessary permit procedures. It’s especially important that you take into account any code requirements about clearance around the electrical breaker box, furnace or other mechanicals. Going through the permit process can be a pain, but when dealing with the basement, especially when it’s time to look at avoiding water penetration, following the city’s guidelines can actually save you a lot of headaches. And don’t get started before checking out these 15 things to consider before starting a basement finishing project.
Another great go-to resource is the How to Finish a Basement course with expert instructor Steve Maxwell. Join Steve as he guides you step-by-step through every part of planning and finishing a basement while answering any questions you encounter along the way.
Let’s close out this list with one more exterior project: A deck! A simple ground-level deck is not complicated nor outside the skill level of most DIYers, but that doesn’t mean you won’t have to pull a permit before starting work. Of course, one of the good things about decks is that even if you find that you need an inspection halfway through the project, it’s relatively easy for the inspector to see all the work that has been done. The only step that you want to make sure you have inspected before proceeding is any required footer inspections. Family Handyman has tons of resources to help you build the deck of your dreams, like this article on how to build a solid, frost-proof deck footing.