Fix Bad Boat and Utility Trailer Light Wiring
Trailer Lights Not Working?
IntroductionTrailer lights out? Here's how to diagnose and fix trailer lights that are dim or don't work. Most fixes are quick and easy.
- 4-in-1 screwdriver
- continuity tester
- jumper wire
- Nut driver
- tow vehicle tester
- 220-grit sandpaper
- Electrical contact cleaner
- Replacement light bulb
- Wiring kit
Keep your trailer light wiring in tiptop condition
If your utility trailer is starting to show its age, you no doubt have had problems with your lights. Properly functioning trailer lights are a must for safety, so check your lights every time you use your trailer. Some problems, such as a burned-out bulb or a bad trailer light ground wire, can be a snap to fix—others can be a real pain to diagnose and repair. Follow the steps in our photo sequence to keep your trailer lights in tiptop condition.
Project step-by-step (9)
Trailer Lights Not Working Solution: Troubleshoot your vehicle with a tester
Check the vehicle system
Plug a tow vehicle tester into the connector in the vehicle to make sure the trailer light wiring system works.
Close-up of tow vehicle testers
Two types of a trailer wiring tester. Check your vehicle's plug configuration. Hook up your trailer and connect the trailer light harness. Have a helper stand back to see if the running lights, stoplights and blinkers are working properly. If all the lights appear dim or you have no lights at all, check the trailer light harness at the tow vehicle. First disconnect the harness and plug a tester (Photo) into the receptacle from your vehicle. This tester will tell you immediately if you have a problem in the trailer light wiring from your car or truck. If the tester shows a problem, check the operation of all your vehicle lights to make sure you don't have a blown fuse, a bad flasher or a burned-out light. Clean the connector (Photo, Step 2 below) and check again. Check for broken wires near the connector. If you still have problems, make an appointment to have the wiring checked. If the lights on the tester function properly, the problem is the trailer lights or harness and you need to some trailer lights troubleshooting.
Trailer Lights Not Working Solution: Clean both connector plugs
Clean the trailer light wiring connectors
Clean the plug and socket with a special cleaner. If after you check the tow vehicle for problems the trailer lights still appear dim or aren't lighting at all, clean the connector plug. Spray the connector with an electrical contact cleaner and use a fine wire brush to clean the contact pins.
Trailer Lights Not Working Solution: Check the trailer light wiring ground
Tighten the ground
Clean the ground contact and tighten the ground wire to the metal frame. Next, check the ground wire. Most problems occur here. Remove the ground screw and sand the wire terminal and trailer chassis contact with sandpaper. If the ground screw itself is corroded, replace it with a new screw.
Trailer Lights Not Working Solution: Replace bad bulbs
Replace the bulb
Remove a bulb with a slight twist and install the new one by reversing the twist direction. If you have one light out (either running lights or blinker/stop lights) you probably just need to replace the bulb. Remove the lens, replace the bulb and check it. If it works, you're on your way.
Trailer Lights Not Working Solution: Clean corroded sockets
Sand corroded sockets
Remove corrosion with fine sandpaper and 3/8-in. dowel to get into tight spaces. If the light still doesn't work, you may have corrosion in the socket at the contact points. Attach a bit of 220-grit sandpaper to the butt end of a 3/8-in.dowel with hot glue. Clean the contact points by spinning the dowel and moving it side to side. Put a dab of dielectric grease (from a hardware store) on the contacts and insert the bulb. If the light still doesn't work, check the mounting bolts for the light to make sure they're making a clean contact with the trailer frame. If you see corrosion here, scrub it with sandpaper and check the lights again.
Trailer Lights Not Working Solution: Run a continuity test
Check the trailer wiring by running a continuity test by connecting a jumper wire to the connector pins and a continuity tester to the sockets.
Close-up of connector pins
Connect the jumper wire to one of the pins in the trailer socket.
Close-up of a continuity tester
A continuity tester contains a light bulb and a battery. The bulb lights when a circuit is good.
Close-up of a jumper wire
Alligator clips at the wire ends make continuity connections quick and easy. If the lights on one side still aren't working, you may have a break in the wire. To test for a broken wire, check the color of the wire going to the socket and then find that wire on the connector in front. Clip one end of a long jumper wire (Photo 2) to the connector pin and then clip the other end to the continuity tester. Probe inside the socket with the tester (you'll see the color of the wire that connects to the socket inside). If the light fails to go on, trace the wire and check for bare spots or breaks. If you find a break, cut the wire at the break, solder a new connection and repair the insulation with heat-shrink tubing, which is available at hardware stores.
Trailer Lights Not Working Solution: Replace the trailer light wiring
How to wire a new trailer light system
Don't hesitate to replace the entire wiring system if it's badly corroded. If all else fails and you're finding badly corroded parts, you can buy a new wire harness for about $20. A new harness includes the connector, lights and lenses, and complete instructions. In most cases, it can be installed in about two hours.