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How to Use a Table Saw: Ripping Boards Safely

Almost all table saw injuries are avoidable if you use the proper ripping techniques. Learn the safe way to make a variety of rip cuts including long rips, skinny rips and even rips to straighten a crooked board.

By the DIY experts of The Family Handyman Magazine

Install the blade guard that came with your saw

A blade guard assembly that includes a splitter and an anti-kickback pawl is standard equipment with every table saw. If you’ve set yours aside, now’s the time to dust it off, dig out your instruction manual and reinstall it. Keeping this safety equipment on your saw and in good working condition is crucial for safe cutting. The plastic guard keeps your fingers away from the blade and deflects flying debris. The splitter keeps the board from pinching the blade and kicking back at you. Kickback danger is further reduced by the anti-kickback pawl, which has little teeth that grab the board and prevent it from hurtling toward you if the blade pinches or binds during the cut.

Safe ripping starts with adjusting the blade height. In general, the less blade exposed, the safer your sawing operation. Photo 1 shows the safest height for good cutting performance.

Save your fingers with a push stick

Even with a blade guard in place, you don’t want your hand anywhere near the spinning blade. A moment’s lapse in concentration or one little slip is all it takes to lose a finger. Push sticks allow you to keep your hands a safe distance from the blade while ripping skinny pieces. Woodworkers we talked to prefer the push shoe design (Photo 4) over the push stick. The handle on the shoe shape gives you a better grip for more control over the wood and reduces the chances of your hand slipping off. Make a push shoe using the pattern we’ve provided in Fig. A, or buy one from a store specializing in woodworking supplies. Always make push sticks out of plywood, not lumber that could split and fall apart while you’re pushing. Push sticks and shoes are the only safe way to guide a thin board past the spinning saw blade. Make a habit of keeping a push stick or shoe within easy reach whenever you use the saw.

While there are no hard and fast rules about how narrow a strip you can rip before needing a push stick, it’s a good idea to establish a safe distance and stick to it. We recommend using a push stick for any rip narrower than 6 in. (Photo 2).

Save your fingers with a push stick

Support long rips with an outfeed table

Ripping long boards is tricky because the board falls off the backside of the table, tempting you to reach over the spinning blade to catch it. To do it safely, you must support the end of the board as it comes off the back of the saw. You can buy manufactured stands that incorporate rollers and other devices to support this “outfeed” lumber. But a better solution is to build a small table that’s the same height as your table saw (Photo 3). Or if room permits, build a permanent outfeed platform. Just make sure to support the lumber behind the saw so you’re not tempted to reach over the blade to catch it.

Follow These Commonsense Safety Rules
  • To avoid being hit by a board if it kicks back, stand to the side of the blade when you’re cutting, not directly behind it. Also keep onlookers away from this danger zone. If possible, orient the saw so that doors, windows and walkways aren’t in the blade’s path in case a kickback occurs.
  • Unplug the saw whenever you perform a blade change or adjustment that puts your fingers close to the blade. Also unplug the saw when you’re not using it.
  • Wear safety glasses and hearing protection. Wear a dust mask if you’re sawing in a confined space.
  • Unplug the saw before resetting a tripped circuit breaker or replacing a fuse.

You can rip thin strips safely too

A table saw is the best tool for cutting thin strips of wood for plywood edging, jamb extensions or lattice. The problem is that the blade guard assembly interferes with the fence and doesn’t provide enough space for a push stick. Photos 5 and 6 show how to rip thin strips with the blade guard in place using a couple of easily constructed table saw accessories.

Build the fence extension by screwing a 3/4-in. x 2-1/2 in. strip of plywood to the long side of a 10-in. x 24-in. rectangle of 3/4-in. plywood. Simplify fence adjustments by ripping the finished assembly to exactly 10 in. wide. Then simply add 10 in. to your desired ripping dimension when you set the distance from the blade to the fence. Glue and clamp a 1-3/8 in. wide strip of 1/4-in. plywood or hardboard to a 6-in. x 8-in. rectangle of 3/4-in. plywood for the push block. Don’t use metal fasteners to attach the thin strip.

Here's a trick for straightening crooked boards

Have you ever wanted to rip a straight edge on a crooked board, or rip an odd-shaped piece of wood like a stair baluster in half? The trick is to attach your workpiece to a straight strip of plywood. Then run the straight plywood edge against the fence to create a perfectly straight edge on your crooked board or odd-shaped piece.

This technique works only for boards with an edge that isn’t straight. Don’t try to rip boards that are twisted or cupped. They’ll likely bind in the blade and could kick back.

Push shoe template

Push shoe template

Plywood push shoe

Plywood push shoe

Figure A: Homemade Push Shoe

To make your own push shoe, print this template out or draw it on graph paper, then enlarge it on a copier until it’s roughly 12-in. long. Tape the enlarged copy to a piece of plywood and cut it out with a jigsaw.

Make sure the heel is thinner than the wood you’re pushing so the heel doesn’t catch on the saw bed as you’re pushing.

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Required Tools for this Project

Have the necessary tools for this DIY project lined up before you start—you’ll save time and frustration.

    • Clamps
    • Table saw

Make sure you have the blade guard and a push stick or push shoe. Use an outfeed table for long rips and large pieces.

Required Materials for this Project

Avoid last-minute shopping trips by having all your materials ready ahead of time. Here's a list.

You'll need 3/4-in plywood for fence extensions and custom push blocks and ripping strips.

Comments from DIY Community Members

Share what's on your mind and see what other DIYers are thinking about.

1 - 4 of 4 comments
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February 18, 9:32 AM [GMT -5]

Figure A: I like the push shoe concept and I have always used shoes of varying widths with my table saw, jointer, and other stationary tools. I have put a lot of effort into safety and what I have found is that a push shoe should have a D handle. The shoe, as pictured in figure A, has a weak point at the neck where the handle meets the shoe. Should the user encounter strong resistance when cutting a board, which might cause one to push more down than forward the handle could brake and lead to injury. Where the push stick has a D handle, that energy is all transferred through the shoe to the work piece as intended.

June 11, 4:24 PM [GMT -5]

I agree there should have been discussion of featherboards. I built a custom one that fits over my fence like an upside down U -- it provides vertical restriction to the workpiece as the fence provides horizontal restriction. On the other side of the blade and workpiece I use a Kreg featherboard that clamps into the mitre slot to provide horizontal restriction from that side. I feel much safer since I started using these.

January 23, 11:51 AM [GMT -5]

I am a retired Industrial Technology teacher and have used numerous brand of equipment. I have an older Craftsman 12" tables saw and a Hatachi I bout in 2007. Having made many European style cabinets trimmed with 1/4 strips of Walnut, oak, or ash lumber, I have cut hundreds of strips on Delta, Powermatic, and Craftsman saws. In 2009, I was sawing a strip about an inch wide and 5 or 6 feet in length, when the Hiachi saw allowed the smaller strip to flip and 3 of my fingers made minimal contact with the blade. After several months I realized the problem. This is the only saw I see anywhere that has at least a 1/4 inch more space around the blade. I contacted the company more than once by email but had no response. They should send out minimum clearance plates. These are made to fit the cutout and they are cut through making the blade slot by your own blade. I wish to bring this to everyones attention!
I was talking to another friend wich purchased featherboards that are easily moved that have strong magnets-he loves them. I find these are far safer than many of the older guards that were cumbersome and unsafe themselves to use. Lots of good points to follow-having taught hundreds of students woodworking, I had only two students get any stitches using the table saw.

Happy years of sawing to everyone out there.
Charles

November 29, 10:46 PM [GMT -5]

This is a well written article. Alignment of the anti-kickback / plastic protector would be helpful... how is it done?
Bob

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