Before you sign the contract...
Even if you’re an avid DIYer,
you’ll eventually need a job
done that’s just too big or complex
to tackle by yourself. That’s
when you hire a contractor. But how
do you know you’re getting the best
deal? Well, first, make sure you follow
all the time-honored advice like asking
friends and family to recommend
a contractor, making sure you hire
someone you’re comfortable with,
and verifying that the contractor has
been in business for a while and has
liability and worker’s compensation
insurance. Then when you meet with
your contractors to discuss the job, you should ask these questions to be
confident that you’re getting the most
for your remodeling dollar.
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Clean off dirt and loose paint by pressure washing or scrubbing.
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Follow the initial wash with scraping, sanding and a final cleaning.
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Prime bare wood and old paint before applying the finish coat.
Painting the outside of a house is a big and often expensive job. The last thing you want is to face the project again in a few years when poorly applied paint starts to flake and peel. You can greatly improve the odds of getting a job that lasts 8 to 10 years by asking these questions before you hire a painter.
How do you plan to prepare the surface for painting?
I’m sure you’ve heard it a million times, but proper preparation is the key to a long-lasting paint job. You can apply the best paint in the world but it won’t last if the surface is dirty or loose. Make sure your contractor is planning to wash the surface to remove dust, dirt and other contaminants, either by scrubbing or with a pressure washer. The next step should be scraping all loose paint followed by sanding and,finally, another wash or wipe-down to remove sanding dust.
Will you prime before caulking and painting?
Primers are absolutely necessary over bare wood and a good idea over old paint too. If there are layers of old paint with exposed edges, ask your painting contractor to use a binding primer on these areas. Binding primers form a flexible seal to help prevent old layers of paint from peeling off.
What areas are you planning to caulk?
Most paint failures start at edges where water can seep under the paint and loosen it. A thorough job of caulking solves this problem and extends the life of the paint job. Your painter should caulk cracks where the siding meets windows and doors, and any other cracks where water could enter. However, the painters we talked to advised against caulking the cracks under lap siding.
What kind of paint do you plan to use?
Good painters will use good paint, but they may not plan to use the best paint. Ask the painting contractor to include 100 percent acrylic exterior paint in the estimate. Even if you’re charged a little extra, you’ll save money in the long run.
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Tear-offs are now recommended for most reroofing jobs. Discuss the issue thoroughly with your contractor.
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Leaks often originate at rusted flashing, and it should usually be replaced.
When it’s time to reroof, it pays to make sure the materials and
workmanship are first rate. A poorly installed roof can cost you a
fortune if it leaks or blows off in a storm. When you get bids from
contractors, be sure they’re licensed, bonded and insured and can
provide references from past customers. Then ask these questions:
Do you plan to tear off the old shingles and pull the nails?
When you’re comparing bids, ask if the roofing contractor
recommends tearing off the old shingles.
Removing the old roofing materials allows the roofing
contractor to inspect the roof sheathing and
repair rot or other damage, exposes problems with flashings, and provides a smooth surface that’s easier
to waterproof and roof over.
How will you charge for extra work, like replacing rotted wood?
Regardless of how careful the contractor is to
include all the necessary work in the bid, there are
bound to be surprises. For example, it’s hard to know
the condition of the roof sheathing until the shingles
are removed, and at that point in the job you don’t
have much bargaining power. That’s why it’s important
to include in the contract an hourly rate for extra
work, or a square-foot price for replacing the sheathing.
If possible, plan to stay home on the day the
roofers tear off the shingles so you can work with the
contractor to establish an agreeable price for repairs.
Will you replace damaged or rusted flashing?
One of the most common roof leak sites is at the
intersection of the roof and a wall, like the sides of a
dormer. These areas are waterproofed with a series
of overlapping pieces of sheet metal, approximately
8 in. square, that are bent to lap onto the wall. These
step flashings are then covered with shingles on the
roof side, and siding or another piece of flashing,
called counterflashing, on the wall side. It’s always
best to replace the
step flashing. But in
some cases, it’s difficult
to remove step
flashing from under
the siding. Make sure
your roofer is planning
to inspect the
step flashing and
explain your options
for replacing or
Will you replace the roof vents and valley flashing?
It’s bad economy to try to save money by reusing roof
vents, plumbing vent flashing or valley metal.
Replacing all of these with new materials only adds
a few hundred dollars to the cost of a typical roof,
but ensures a leakproof job. For the best appearance,
also ask the roofer to use metal that’s prefinished to
match the color of the shingles.
Once you start, will you stay on the job until it’s done?
Less-reputable contractors may take your down payment,
start the job, and then disappear for a few days
to start other jobs. Make sure your contractor plans
to stay until the job is done. And to ensure timely
completion, don’t make the final payment until
every detail is complete.
Another common tactic is to subcontract the work
to other crews. This isn’t necessarily bad, but make
sure your contractor plans to inspect the job daily and keep tabs on the progress and quality of the work.
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A good driveway starts with a proper base. Cold areas of the country need a thicker gravel base than warm areas where freezing and thawing is not a problem.
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Know the recommended asphalt depth for your area.
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Experienced contractors have the right equipment and an understanding of how to use it.
Fly-by-night contractors are common in the asphalt industry, but
there are ways to avoid them: First, don’t buy from door-knockers—reputable contractors seldom resort to this technique to get
jobs. Then ask your contractor the following questions to get a
long-lasting driveway and the most bang from your buck.
How are you planning to prepare the base for the asphalt?
Just as for a concrete driveway, a well-compacted,
stable base is essential for a long-lasting asphalt job.
Ideally, soil containing organic material would be
removed, as well as enough clay or other expansive
soil, to allow the installation of a 6- to 8-in. base of
compacted gravel. But this level of preparation may
not be common in your area, especially if you don’t
have severe freeze/thaw cycles. When you compare
bids, pay close attention to how your contractor proposes
to prepare the base, and choose the contractor
who seems the most likely to do a job that will last.
How thick will the asphalt be once it’s compacted?
In most areas of the country, a 2- to 3-in. layer of
asphalt is sufficient if it’s installed over a stable base.
Will you slope the driveway to avoid standing water?
Water pooling on or at the edges of an asphalt driveway
can cause damage and shorten the life of the
asphalt. Make sure your contractor plans to slope the
driveway and surrounding area for good drainage.
How do you plan to finish the edges of the asphalt?
A top-notch asphalt job includes beveling the edges
at a 45-degree angle and packing the asphalt with a
hand tamper for durability.
What equipment will you use to compact the driveway?
Asphalt must be compacted with heavy equipment
soon after it’s spread, while it’s still hot. Choose a
contractor who has 1- to 3-ton rollers for compacting the asphalt.
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The best concrete slabs have rebar for extra strength.
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Control joints are an essential part of any slab, and should be no more than 10 feet apart.
A concrete driveway is a big investment that will last a long time
if it’s done right. But choose your contractor carefully. Poorly
installed concrete can crack, buckle and heave, leaving you wishing
you’d spent a little extra up front for a first-class job.
How do you plan to prepare the base for the concrete?
The type of soil under your driveway determines
how much preparation is needed before the concrete
is poured. It’s important to find a contractor who’s
familiar with the local soil conditions and can recommend
a course of action. Typically the best base
for a concrete driveway is a 4- to 6-in. layer of compacted
How thick will the finished concrete slab be?
While 4-in.-thick slabs are the norm, adding an inch
of concrete is a great investment. The extra inch adds
only 25 percent to the amount of concrete needed
but increases the strength by about 50 percent.
What are the specifications of the concrete you intend to use?
In its most basic form, concrete is a mixture of
cement, aggregates (sand and gravel) and water. The
proportion of these ingredients helps determine the
strength of the concrete. Engineers we spoke to recommend
a 4,000-lb. mix (strength) for driveways.
Adding fiber mesh to the concrete mix increases
resistance to hairline cracks and is a good investment.
In cold climates, order air-entrained concrete
to help the concrete survive freeze/thaw cycles.
Do you plan to add rebar to reinforce the concrete?
For ultimate strength, concrete requires an embedded
mesh of reinforcing steel. You can see this skeleton
of steel being incorporated into every road and
bridge project. So it only makes sense to add it to
your driveway. Wire mesh
doesn’t add much strength.
Find a contractor who typically
installs a grate of 3/8- or 1/2-
in. reinforcing steel and you’ll
be assured of the strongest slab
money can buy. Typically the
overlapping steel rods intersect
to form 3- or 4-ft. squares.
How many control joints will you cut into the concrete?
Concrete driveways are going to crack. Control joints
provide a weakened line that encourages the cracks
to form where you won’t see them. For a 5-in.-thick
slab, control joints should be added in a pattern of
squares no larger than about 10 ft. The joints should
be at least 1-1/4 in. deep to be effective. Some contractors
use a tool to cut the joints while the concrete
is wet. Others return to cut the joints with a saw after
the concrete sets.
Will you provide a sketch showing the dimensions of the driveway?
To make sure you know what you’re getting and to
prevent any misunderstandings, ask for a sketch of
the proposed driveway showing all the dimensions
and how it intersects with existing structures like
the garage, house or street.
Will you apply curing compound after you finish the driveway?
Concrete needs to cure for about a week to approach
full strength. During this time, evaporation of the
water in the concrete has to be slowed to allow proper
curing. Misting the slab or covering it with wet
burlap or plastic sheeting are two methods of slowing
evaporation. But applying a liquid, membrane-forming
curing compound to just-finished concrete
is better because it doesn’t require constant vigilance to succeed.
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Flashing the gutter
A gutter apron is a critical part of the gutter installation, and if it's left out or done incorrectly water could back up into the eaves.
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Most gutter contractors install seamless gutters, which are formed to length at the jobsite. Ask the contractor to use the thicker gauge (.032 in.) aluminum.
“Seamless aluminum” gutters are the most common contractor-installed
gutters. The quality of these installations can vary
widely, so hire a contractor who’s been in business for several
years and can show you examples of past work. Then ask these
questions to be certain you’re getting the best-quality job.
How will you slope the gutters so they drain?
It may look nicer to have level gutters, but it’s better
if they slope slightly downhill toward the downspouts.
Just a little slope, about 1/16 in. per foot, is
all that’s needed. Long gutter runs may require
downspouts on each end and a gutter that slopes
both directions from the center.
What size downspouts are you going to install?
Ask for oversized, 3 x 4-in. downspouts. They don’t
cost much more but have the advantages of carrying
more water and clogging less.
How thick is the metal on the gutters you’re planning to install?
There are two common thicknesses of aluminum
used for gutters, .027 and .032 in. If you’re getting
bids on aluminum gutters, make sure the contractor
is planning to install the thicker, .032-gauge gutters.
Are you going to install new gutter apron?
Water running behind the gutters can stain or otherwise
damage the fascia board and soffit. To avoid
this problem, the gutter installer should install metal
flashing, also called gutter apron. Gutter apron slips
under the shingles and over the edge of the gutter to
direct the water into the gutter.
How close together will the gutter hangers be spaced?
The contractor will attach the gutters to your house
with screws through the back of the gutter, and then
add gutter hangers to support the front edge. Since
aluminum gutters will bend if they’re not well supported,
it’s important to have plenty of hangers to
reinforce the outside edge. Be sure your contractor is
planning to install a hanger at least every 3 ft. In climates
where snow and ice remain on the roof over
the winter, ask for 2-ft. spacing.
Does your bid include downspout extensions?
One of the main purposes of gutters is to keep water
from accumulating near the foundation. Adding horizontal
extensions to the bottom of the downspouts
helps move the water farther from the house. Usually
the extensions are just another length of downspout
material attached to an elbow at the house. But flip-up
or roll-out versions are available for areas where
downspout extensions might interfere with mowing or other activities.
Ceramic tile floor
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Good tile work means getting the details right: creating a solid base, caulking the corners, covering tub or shower flanges, and using the right mortar, grout and sealer.
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Crack isolation membrane
Cracks in a concrete subfloor will eventually appear in the finished tiles unless they’re covered with a crack isolation membrane.
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Level uneven floors
Uneven subfloors should be leveled before the tile is laid—the thinset mortar used to adhere tiles is not meant to be used to level out the floor.
Properly installed tile floors should last decades. But poorly
installed floors will start to crack or fall apart in a matter of years,
if not months. Here are some questions to ask your tile contractor
to ensure a long-lasting job.
Do you plan to apply a grout sealer to protect the grout?
Grout sealers help keep grout clean and seal out
water. Applying grout sealer is an easy job that you
can do yourself. But when you’re comparing bids,
it’s good to know whether it’s included.
How are you planning to deal with transitions to other flooring?
A well-planned and attractive transition is the mark
of a top-quality tile job. Adding an adequate base
often raises the floor level and creates a height difference
at transition areas. In many situations, marble
or solid surface thresholds
make attractive transitions to other floors. Ask tile
contractors how much height difference there will
be between transition areas and how they plan to
deal with it.
Will you use latex mastic or thin-set adhesive to install the tile?
According to experts at the Tile Council of North
America, thin-set adhesive is superior to mastic for
setting floor tile. Thin-set provides solid support
when it sets, and can bridge slight variations in the
subfloor. Be sure your contractor is planning to use
thin-set to adhere your floor tile.
What material do you plan to install as a base for the tile?
A tile job is only as good as the substrate it’s on. The
base has to be stiff and flat. Tile can be adhered
directly to sound, crack-free concrete. Ask your contractor
to install an isolation membrane if there are
cracks in the concrete. Even though they’ll be covered
by backer board or a mortar base, wood floors
have to be stiff, with at least 3/4 in. of solid wood or
plywood over properly spaced floor joists. Ask your
contractor to inspect the floor for sponginess and
strength and recommend reinforcements if needed.
If the floor is flat, sheets of tile backer installed in
strict accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation
will be fine. Over uneven wood floors, a
traditional mortar or modern self-leveling mortar base is a better option.