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An energy audit entails a series of tests,
including the blower door pressure test
(shown), that tell you the efficiency of
your heating and cooling system and the
overall efficiency of your home. On the
basis of the test results, the auditor will
recommend low-cost improvements
to save energy and larger
upgrades that will pay you back
within five to seven years.
Audits take two to three hours
and cost $250 to $400, but if
you set one up through your
utility company, you may be
eligible for a rebate.
A basic part of an energy audit is the
blower door test. The auditor closes all
the doors and windows and then places
a blower fan in a front or back door. This
blower door test measures the "tightness,"
or air infiltration rate. The pressure
and flow gauge shows
the difference between the inside and
the outside airflow so the auditor can
calculate the air leakage rate.
Locating air leaks can be tricky. They're often so small as to be hardly noticeable. To find them, follow a trail of smoke.
Close all the windows in the house, turn off all the fans and exhaust fans, and shut off the furnace. Light some incense and walk slowly around the outer walls of the house. Anywhere you notice the smoke blowing away from something or being sucked toward something, there's probably an air leak. Now that you've found it, seal it!
Fireplace chimneys can be very inefficient, letting your warm inside air disappear like smoke up a chimney. If you have airtight glass doors that seal the opening, you're in good shape. (The doors are available at fireplace retailers and home centers.) If not, a special balloon or chimney-top damper will get the job done.
For fireplace chimneys that are seldom or never used, inflate a Chimney Balloon inside the chimney to stop the air leaks. Buy it directly from the company (608-467-0229; chimneyballoon.us). Partially inflate the balloon by mouth or with a pump, then stick it into the chimney and blow it up the rest of the way.
Putting in and taking out the reusable balloon can be messy, so you don't want to hassle with chimney balloons if you regularly use your fireplace. But that doesn't mean you have to settle for energy loss. Instead, you can install a chimney-top damper system, like the Chim-a-lator, which seals the top of the flue when the chimney's not in use. A lever in the fireplace controls the damper via a long cable. Type "chim-a-lator" into any search engine to find distributors or buy from www.chimalators.com.
Installation involves attaching the damper and screened-in cap to the chimney top, then mounting the lever in the fireplace. If you don't feel comfortable working on the roof, hire a chimney sweep or mason, who can install the system for you.
Wood-burning fireplaces can warm up a room, but more often, they rob a house of heat by letting it escape up the chimney. If you have a modern fireplace with a cold air intake from outside, make sure you equip it with an airtight door. If you have an older fireplace that uses room air for combustion, equip it with a door that has operable vents. And only keep those vents open when you have a fire in the fireplace. Otherwise, heat will constantly be sucked out of the house.
Airtight doors have gaskets that seal the doors. They fasten to the masonry opening like other door systems, but they seal the area to keep heated air from leaking up the chimney. Prices start at $700 (yes, that's a lot compared with the cost of regular doors, which start at about $230). Enter "fireplace doors" in a search engine to find local retailers. One online retailer is fireplacedoorsonline.com. Also consider a chimney-top damper, which stops heat loss.
In most homes, but especially in older homes, adding insulation in the attic will cut heat loss. At a minimum, homes should have attic insulation between R-22 and R-49 (6 to 13 in. of loose fill or 7 to 19 in. of fiberglass batts). Check with the local building department to find the recommended level for your area, or visit EnergySavers.gov.
Stick your head through the attic access door and measure how much insulation you have. If your insulation is at or below the minimum, adding some will lower your heating bills. If you need to add more, go with loose-fill insulation rather than fiberglass batts even if you already have fiberglass. Loose fill is usually composed of cellulose or fiberglass and lets you cover joists and get into crevices. Pros charge about 70Â¢ per sq. ft. to blow in 7 to 8 in. of insulation. You can rent a blower ($55 a day) and do the job yourself for less than half that cost, but it's a messy job and you have to watch your step so you don't go through the drywall "floor" in the attic.
"Eighty percent of houses built before 1980 are underinsulated." —Department of Energy.
A room air conditioner keeps a section of the house cool. The problem is, it'll keep the room cool all winter long if it isn't covered properly. If you have a window unit, the best solution is to remove it so the cold air won't flow through and around it. If you decide to leave it in or you have a permanently installed wall unit, grab some removable caulk and a window air conditioner cover to keep out the cold.
Place the cover over the outside of the air conditioner, fitting the sewn-in corner straps over the bottom corners. Wrap the middle straps under and up the sides of the unit, then hook them over the top. Inside the house, apply removable caulk around the air conditioner where it meets the wall or window. If the air conditioner is a built-in unit, permanently seal it with latex caulk.
Keeping your furnace (gas or electric) tuned up has two big benefits: It makes the furnace run efficiently and it prolongs the furnace's life span. And you can perform the annual tune-up yourself in about three hours (see Do It Yourself Furnace Maintenance Will Save A Repair Bill).
Change the filter every month of the heating season (or year-round if the filter is also used for A/C). Be sure you insert the new one so it faces the right way. The filter protects the blower and its motor; a clogged filter makes the motor work harder and use more power.
A clogged lint screen or dryer duct drastically reduces the efficiency of your dryer, whether it's gas or electric. Clean the lint screen after each load and clean the exhaust duct once a year. The Linteater (shown) has an auger brush that attaches to a drill to clean out the ducts. It's available at Lowe's for about $35.
Electric dryers use about $85 of electricity annually. A dirty lint screen can cause the dryer to use up to 30 percent more electricity ($25 per year), according to the Consumer Energy Center. Lint buildup is also a common cause of fires.
Dry loads of laundry back-to-back so the dryer doesn't cool down between loads (a warm dryer uses less energy). And only run the dryer until the clothes are dry. Overdrying damages your clothes and runs up your electric bill. If you're in the market for a new dryer and already have a gas line in the house, go with a gas dryer. A gas dryer is more efficient.
Is your laundry room cold in the winter? Cold air might be coming through your dryer vent. The vent should have a flap (or flaps) at the end to stop air infiltration. Go outside and make sure there's a flap and that it's not stuck open. If the flap works well, check the caulking. If it's cracking and peeling away, it's probably allowing cold air to leak in. Cut away the old caulking, make sure the vent is flush against the siding, and apply new latex caulk.
If the flap doesn't close on its own, try cleaning it and then spray silicone on the pivot point. If the flap still won't close, replace it. A new vent costs about $5 at home centers, and installing it will only take about 15 minutes.
Start by cutting away the caulking around the vent on the siding with a utility knife, remove any screws and unclamp the duct leading to the dryer. Slide the old vent out of the wall, slip in the new one and reattach it to the duct. Caulk around the vent flange.
Builders often put a soffit where they want to put cabinets or recessed light fixtures, and sometimes they use soffits to contain heating ducts. Soffits have a high potential for leakage, especially if they contain recessed lights. Refer to your sketch and dig around in the insulation if necessary to find them.
Reflective foil insulation, sometimes called "bubble-pack" insulation, works well as an air barrier for soffits. It's flexible and only about 1/4 in. thick, making it easy to cut with a scissors. You have to clear insulation from the surrounding wood to get the caulk to stick. Then cover the foil with insulation when you're finished. However, don't put insulation within 3 in. of recessed lights unless the fixture is IC rated (for "insulation contact"). The rating will be listed on a label inside the recessed can.
Storm windows aren't new, but they're definitely improved: New ones open and close and can be left on year-round. Some offer low-emissivity coatings to further cut heat loss. You can use low-e versions even if your windows already have a low-e coating.
You'll see the biggest payback when they're used over single-pane windows. But don't use storm windows over aluminum windows—heat buildup between the two windows can damage the aluminum, and drilling holes for installation can cause leaks.
You can buy or special-order storm windows at home centers, but you may have trouble finding low-e models. Two sources are ProVia Door and Kaufmann Window & Door. Storm windows start at $30. Measure the height and width of the window (from the outside) before ordering. Do-it-yourself installation takes about 30 minutes per window.
"Almost half of U.S. homes have single-pane windows. Windows are major sources of heat loss, but low-e storm windows can reduce that heat loss by more than 50 percent." —Department of Energy.
Electrical outlets and switches on exterior walls can leak a lot of cold outside air into the house. Add up all the outlets in the average house and you can have some serious heat loss—which makes it worth spending 10 minutes per outlet plugging the holes.
Before you start, flip the circuit breaker off and use a noncontact voltage tester to ensure there's no power. Remove the cover plate. If the gap between the electrical box and the drywall is less than 1/4 in., fill it with acrylic latex caulk. If the gap is bigger and lopsided, use foam sealant that's formulated for use around doors and window framing. The minimally expanding foam won't drip down your walls. After the foam dries, cut away any that protrudes, add a foam gasket (to reduce drafts through the box) and replace the cover plate. Do the same around register openings on the inside of exterior walls.
Pull back the escutcheons on plumbing pipes where they enter exterior walls and you'll probably see generous gaps around the pipes. In cold weather, you might also feel the draft coming in. All it takes is a can of expanding foam to seal those leaks.
Shake the can vigorously, then squirt the foam around the pipes inside the wall. Don't completely fill the gap—the foam will expand. If it expands too much and you can't get the escutcheon back on, wait for it to dry, then slice it flush with the wall with a utility knife.
Before you crawl into your attic, make a rough sketch of the floor plan and the ceiling below the attic. Sketch in the walls, the chimney, the main plumbing stack, ceiling electrical fixtures and lower sections of ceiling. They all have high leak potential, and your sketch will help you find them when you're in the attic.
To help generate actual leakage, place a box fan in a window so it blows air into the house. Then close all other windows and doors. Tape cardboard around the fan to eliminate large gaps. When you turn the fan on high, you'll slightly pressurize the house, just like an inflated balloon. Then when you're in the attic (with the hatch closed), you can confirm a leaky area by feeling the air coming through. You may even spot the insulation blowing in the breeze.
Another helpful sign is dirty insulation (photo above). Insulation fibers filter the household air as it passes, leaving a dirt stain that marks the leaky area.
Don't expect the thin metal flap on your dryer vent to keep out the cold. Lint or dents in the flap can keep it from fully closing, allowing outside air in. Wind blows them open too. For a more reliable air seal, install an energy-efficient unit from Creative Energy Technologies. A cup inside the vent seals the opening when the dryer's off, then "floats" when it's on to direct the warm, moist air out the bottom of the unit.
Remove the old vent and install the new one (it takes less than 10 minutes). The vent comes with easy-to-follow installation instructions. The company guarantees it will keep out birds, rodents and bugs too. You can paint it to match your house.
If you're turning up the heat in the house to compensate for drafty windows, consider quilted curtains, which can increase your comfort and let you keep the temp down. The curtains are available in various colors, patterns and sizes. Enter "quilted curtain" in a search engine to find retailers. Online sources include plowhearth.com and amazon.com. Prices start at under $100, and a curtain can be installed in less than 10 minutes on your existing curtain rod.
Older wood doors usually rely on a non-adjustable threshold to keep the weather out. If your old door doesn't seal tight against the threshold, you're wasting energy. You could screw a surface-applied weather strip to the face of the door, but a door-bottom weather strip is a less obtrusive way to create a good seal.
The door bottom we're using is available at most home centers and hardware stores. If you can't find a door bottom that's smooth on one side, you can slice off the barbed flanges from bottoms designed for steel or fiberglass doors.
Cut the bottom of the door to allow enough (but not too much) clearance to install the new door bottom. The goal is to create an even 3/8-in. space between the top of the existing threshold and the bottom of the door. Close the door and measure the largest gap between the door and the threshold. If the gap is less than 3/8 in., calculate how much you'll have to cut off the bottom to equal 3/8 in. Mark this distance on the door at the point you measured. Then use a scribing tool to extend a mark across the bottom of the door.
Remove the hinge pins and move the door to a set of sawhorses. Mount a sharp blade in your circular saw and cut along the line. Protect the surface of the door with masking tape. If you have a veneered door, score along the line with a sharp utility knife before sawing it to avoid chipping the veneer.
Cut the door-bottom weather strip about 1/8 in. shorter than the width of the door and tack it to the bottom of the door with a staple gun. Rehang the door to test the fit. If it's too snug, remove the weather strip and trim a bit more from the door. When the fit is perfect, remove the staples and mount the weather strip.
Weather stripping often becomes loose, worn or distorted
when the sash drags or when the strip gets sticky and
attaches itself to the frame, then pulls loose when the
sash is opened. Windows have weather strip on the
sash, frame or both. Regardless of its location, the steps
for removing and replacing it are the same. Weather
stripping is available from your window manufacturer or online. The window brand and glass manufacturer
date are etched in the corner of the glass or in
the aluminum spacer between the glass panes. You'll
also need the height and width of your sash (take these
If the weather strip is in good shape and loose in only
a few places, like the corners, apply a dab of polyurethane
sealant to the groove and press the weather strip into place. Otherwise, replace the entire weather strip. First remove the sash and set it on a work surface so you can access all four sides. If the weather strip is one continuous piece, cut it apart at the corners with a utility knife.
Starting at a corner, pull the weather strip loose from
the sash. If the spline tears off and remains
stuck in the groove, make a hook from stiff wire to dig
Work the new weather strip into the groove, starting
at a corner. You'll hear it click as the strip slides into
Sill plates and rim joists are usually poorly insulated (if at all) and very leaky. So if you have an unfinished basement, grab some silicone or acrylic latex caulk to seal the sill plate. If you simply have fiberglass insulation stuffed against the rim joist, pull it out. Run a bead of caulk between the edge of the sill plate and the top of the foundation wall. Use expanding spray foam anywhere there are gaps larger than 1/4 in. between the sill and the foundation. For hollow-block foundations, stuff fiberglass insulation in the holes, then seal it with expanding foam.
Caulk along the top and bottom of the rim joists and use expanding foam to seal around holes for electric, water and gas lines. Then cut rigid foam insulation to size and place it around the rim joist. Caulk around all four sides of the foam insulation.
Hot air rises, so leaks in the ceiling are even worse than leaks in walls. And in many homes, this airflow through ceilings and into the attic is the No. 1 source of heat loss. You can check for leaks around ceiling light fixtures and the attic access door using an incense stick. But the only way to detect other leaks is to crawl up into the attic, pull back the insulation and look for them. Most leaks occur where chimneys and electrical and plumbing lines pass through the ceiling. Although the attic is a nasty place to work, plugging these leaks is a simple project—mostly caulking and foaming gaps.
If you can feel the breeze and see daylight under your entry door, it's costing you big-time. It also means you need to adjust your door threshold or install a new door sweep. Door sweeps start at $10. The hardest part about replacing them is usually taking off the door.
Start by adjusting the threshold. Newer versions have screws that raise and lower them. Turn all of the threshold screws until the door opens and closes without much drag and any draft is eliminated. If that doesn't work, or your threshold doesn't have adjustment screws, replace the door sweep.
Close the door and pop out the hinge pins with a pin punch to remove the door. Set the door on a work surface and remove the old door sweep. Caulk the ends of the door, then install the replacement sweep. Some sweeps are tapped into place and stapled along the door bottom; others are screwed to the side along the door bottom.
We all know the mantra by now—turn down the thermostat during the winter months and you'll save money. And it's true. According to the Department of Energy, for every degree you lower the thermostat, you'll save 1 percent on your energy bill. But turning down the heat has a big drawback—you have to wear extra clothes to stay warm. The solution? Use a space heater to stay comfortable in the room where family members gather, like the living room. Fireplaces and fireplace inserts can provide space heating, but electric heaters are the easiest way to warm up a room.
Baseboard, fan-forced air and oil-filled electric heaters all have roughly the same energy efficiency, although oil-filled units are the quietest (but are also larger and heavier). You'll have to turn down the heat enough (usually 5 degrees F or more) to offset the cost of the electricity used by the space heater and still pocket a savings. Space heaters range in price from $30 to more than $100, depending on benefits like remote control, a programmable thermostat and safety features. You can buy them at home centers, discount stores and online.
Remember, space heaters cut heating bills only if you turn down the temperature in the entire house. The heaters work best in walled-in rooms (rather than in open spaces), where the heat can be contained.
A towel warmer ($50 and up) can act like a small space heater for your bathroom and provide you with a toasty towel after bathing. There are freestanding units and units that mount to the wall and are plugged in or hardwired. Towel warmers are available at comfortchannel.com and other online retailers. Towel warmers don't save energy, but they can keep you warm in the bathroom when the house thermostat is turned down.
After sealing the attic bypasses, push the insulation back into place with an old broom handle or a stick as you back out of the attic. Then finish up by sealing the access hatch with self-sticking foam weatherstrip. You may have to add new wood stops to provide a better surface for the weatherstrip and enough room for hook-and-eye fasteners. Position the screw eyes so that you slightly compress the weatherstrip when you latch the hatch. Use a similar procedure if you have a hinged door that leads to the attic.
Get an Energy Audit
Finding Air Leaks
Stop Airflow Up the Chimney
Stop Fireplace Heat Loss
Add Attic Insulation
Caulk and Cover Room Air Conditioners
Change Furnace Filter and Save up to $60 a Year
Clean Out the Lint for Dryer Efficiency and Save up to $25 a Year
Cold Air in Dryer
Cover Open Soffits
Cut Heat Loss With Storm Windows
Fill Gaps Around Electrical Boxes
Fill Gaps Under Sinks
How to Find the Gaps
Install Airtight Dryer Vent
Install Quilted Curtains to Block Drafts
Replace Your Weather Strip
Seal a Drafty Window
Seal Basement Air Leaks
Seal Small Attic Holes With Foam and Caulk
Stop Under-the-Door Air Leaks
Turn Down the Heat and Still Be Comfortable
Weatherstrip Hatches and Doors
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