Even though we've engineered this shed to keep complicated figuring and cutting to a minimum, it's still a big construction project that will take you at least five or six weekends to complete. If you've built a deck or similar structure, you'll have no trouble putting in the foundation and building the walls. To help you through the trickier roof-framing stage, we'll show you how to make a rafter pattern without using any complex math. You may have to modify our plans slightly to fit your house, but all the basic building techniques we show will be the same.
You won't need any special tools for this project. You probably already own most of the basic carpentry tools you'll need to build this shed. Besides hand tools like a hammer, tape measure, square, utility knife, chalk line, sharp chisel, handsaw and a few screwdrivers, you'll need a 4-ft. level, a line level (Photo 2) and a power drill, plus the bits listed in the story. A circular saw will work for most of the cutting, but the windowsill and drip cap (Fig. C) require bevel cuts that would be easier to make with a table saw. If you don't own a table saw, ask a woodworker or a full-service lumberyard to cut these pieces for you. A power miter box is another optional tool that would add speed and accuracy to your cutting, especially for finish work. You can rent a power miter box, but for a project this big, I'd recommend buying one.
Step 1: Pick a site and order materials
Scope out the perfect location.
With its simple roof style, this shed can go just about anywhere. Look for a spot on the back of your house where windows and doors aren't in the way. Behind or to the side of the garage is a good location. We tied our shed roof into the garage roof, but you can also butt the shed roof against a wall, as long as you install metal flashing under the siding and over the shingles where the roof and wall intersect.
In addition, consider: Ground level. The ideal site is flat and sloping slightly away from the house. If the ground slopes steeply, either toward or away from the house, your job will be a lot harder. You'll have to excavate and build retaining walls or bring in fill. In any case, regrade around the shed to ensure good every drainage and provide a ramp for your lawn mower and wheelbarrow. Roof pitch and headroom. This is the trickiest stage of planning. Our garage has 9-ft. tall walls and a shallow pitched roof. This combination allowed us to continue the roof in a straight line and still have enough headroom at the outside shed wall for standard-height windows and doors. But your house/garage might be different. To ensure adequate outer wall height, stretch a string along the roof and brace a 2x4 temporarily at the location of the outside wall to figure out how much headroom you'll have (basically the same procedure shown in Photo 9 for making the rafter template). Measure from the string representing the roof down to what will be the top of the 6x6 foundation beam. If this distance isn't 90-3/4 in., you'll have to modify the wall height or change the roof slope of our shed plan.
Then call your local building inspections department to find out if your shed location is OK and what's required to get a building permit. Most cities will accept a plan drawn to scale on 1/4-in. graph paper if it includes all the structural details.
Every region has a few unique building requirements. In cold Northern climates like ours, deep footings are required to prevent frost heaving. In areas with high winds or earthquakes, you'll need special metal framing anchors to tie everything together. Ask your building inspector what's required in your area.
Most of the materials for this shed are available at home centers and lumberyards. For a complete shopping list is in the Additional Information below. Here are a few pointers for your shopping trip:
- Pick straight, dry cedar 4x4s. Bowed or twisted lumber will cause trouble when it comes time to install the windows and door. Check at both lumberyards and home centers.
- Make sure the 6x6s are .60 treated, not the less durable .40 that's sometimes used for landscaping timbers. You'll probably have to order them.
- Barn sashes are sold at some home centers and farm-supply retailers. If you're willing to modify the plan dimensions, consider using old storm windows in place of the barn sashes. Contractors specializing in window replacements often throw these away.
- Search for an interesting old entry door at salvage yards or architectural antiques dealers, or buy a new one like ours.
Figure A: Framing Details
Note: You can download Figure A and enlarge it from the Additional Information below.
Figure B: Foundation Plan
Note: You can download Figure B and enlarge it from the Additional Information below.
Step 2: Set the foundation
Photo 1: Stake out the corners of the shed
Establish the size of the shed by laying out and cutting the treated 2x4 bottom plates. To accurately space and mark the posts, use as patterns a 2x4 cut to the width of the window sash plus 1/8 in., and a small section of 4x4. Drive reference stakes along the house or garage to mark the corners and establish the floor height. Then lay the plates on the ground to establish the approximate perimeter
Photo 3: Level and set batter boards
Align the top edge of the 1x4 batter boards with the marks and screw the boards to the stakes. Then stretch strings between the batter boards and reference stakes to indicate the locations of the 6x6 beams and two 4x4 support posts. Subtract 1 in. from the length of the outside wall plate and 1/2 in. from the end plates (the plates overlap the beams 1/2 in.) to determine the beam lengths and positions. Check that the strings form right angles by measuring diagonally from one corner to the other. Adjust the strings until the diagonal measurements are equal and all the sides are the correct length. Tie the strings to nails to hold them taut.
Photo 4: Dig and pour the footings
Position the footings according to your plan. Then dig footing holes with a post hole digger and set 8-in. dia. cardboard forming tubes into them. To establish the correct footing height, measure down from the string the thickness of your 6x6 beam plus the floor thickness, mark the tubes and cut them to this length with a sharp utility knife. Then place them back in the holes, wedge them solidly so the beams will center on them, and fill them with concrete. Set 1/2-in. x 12-in. anchor bolts into the center of each and smooth the tops.
Photo 5: Position and cut the beams
Transfer the layout lines to the footings by plumbing down from the string and marking the concrete piers. Connect the marks with a chalk line. Cut the 6x6 beams to length, allowing an extra 3 in. on the side wall beams so they'll fit into the existing foundation (Photo 7)
Photo 6: Mark and drill for anchor bolts
Lay the outer beam on the footings and measure from the chalk line to the center of the anchor bolts. Transfer these measurements to the 6x6 beams. Drill 5/8-in. holes through the beams at these marks. Drill 1-in. holes 1/2 in. deep to recess the washer and nut.
Photo 7: Anchor the beams
Bolt the outer beam to the footings. Use a masonry blade on a circular saw to cut a pocket in the block foundation to support the end of the 6x6 (or pour another footing if the foundation is concrete). Spread pea gravel under the beams. Connect the side beams to the outer beam with 3/8-in. x 10-in. lag screws.
Begin with a square and level foundation.
To quickly double-check the dimensions on your plan, mark the post locations on the 2x4 bottom plates and cut the plates to length (Photo 1). Use the dimensions from these plates to set up the batter boards and strings (Photos 2 and 3). It's best to align the strings with what will be the outside edge of the 6x6 foundation beam. (Remember to deduct 1 in. from the total length of the front wall and 1/2 in. from each side wall so the walls will overhang the beams by 1/2 in. as shown in Fig. C.) We aligned our strings with the inside edge of the 6x6 because the concrete patio was in the way of setting up batter boards. Take your time getting these strings perfectly level and square.
Our shed is held up by 6x6 treated beams bolted to 42-in. deep concrete piers, which are appropriate for the frost depth in our area. Your building inspector will tell you how deep to go in your region. We rested the end of the 6x6s on notches cut into the garage foundation. If you can't do this, add piers at these locations. About a week before you plan to dig, call the utility companies to locate buried wires or pipes. Use 8-in. dia. cardboard forming tubes for the piers. They allow you to easily establish accurate pier height (Photo 4). Figure one 60-lb. bag of concrete mix for every 1-ft. length of 8-in. dia. tube. After pouring the concrete, position the anchor bolts 2-3/4 in. from the string so they'll end up in the center of the 6x6 beam.
Tip: Before the concrete hardens, double-check that all the footings are level with each other using a long, straight board with a 4-ft. level on top.
Then let the concrete harden overnight. Before you start on the 6x6 beams, dig out enough soil to allow space for 3 in. of gravel under the beams and 5 in. under the concrete patio block floor for good drainage.
Next, you'll cut the 6x6 beams to length and bolt them down (Photos 6 and 7). Mark the beam locations on the footings (Photo 5) and cut the 6x6s to align with these marks. Remember to add the amount that will rest on the garage foundation onto the shorter end beams (Photo 7). Paint wood preservative onto the cut ends of the beams before you bolt them down, and countersink the nuts and washers so the walls will slide on easily.
Step 3: Frame the walls and roof
Photo 9: Make a rafter pattern
Mock up the walls and rafter to make patterns. Position the 4x4 posts at the wall locations (overhanging the 6x6 beams by 1/2 in.), plumb them in both directions with a level, and brace them with 2x4s. Make a rafter pattern by cutting the wall angle on the end of a 2x6, sliding it under the overhang, and temporarily securing it to the wall. Use a taut string to align the 2x6 with the existing roof and temporarily screw or nail it to the posts. Mark the 2x6 along each side of the 4x4 posts.
Photo 11: Make a rafter cutting pattern
Mark the 2x6 to make a pattern rafter. Draw the seat cut (where the rafter rests on the top plate) at a right angle to the post marks. Then use a Speed square to transfer the “plumb cut” angle to the end of the rafter, 11 in. beyond the seat cut for the overhang.
Photo 12: Cut and notch 4x4 top plates
Cut the outside 4x4 top plate 2 ft. longer than the outside 2x4 bottom plate to support the overhanging rafters. Cut the end 4x4 top plates 1-3/4 in. longer than the end 2x4 bottom plates to fit into the notch in the outside 4x4. Align the 2x4 bottom plates with the 4x4s and transfer the layout marks. Cut a 1-3/4 in. x 3-1/2 in. notch in each end of the front 4x4 to accept the side 4x4s.
Photo 13: Assemble the walls
Cut the 4x4 posts to length and assemble the walls. Pound two 6-in. pole barn nails through the predrilled 4x4 top plate and into each 4x4 post. Drill two 1/8-in. pilot holes through the 4x4 top plate at each post location and pound 6-in. pole barn nails through the 4x4 into the posts. Secure the treated bottom plate to the 4x4 posts by nailing two 16d galvanized box nails into each post.
Photo 14: Erect the walls
Lift the front wall onto the 6x6 beam. Position it to hang over the 6x6 beam 1/2 in. on the front and ends. Nail the bottom 2x4 plate to the 6x6 beam with two 16d galvanized nails near each post. Hold a 4-ft. level against the 4x4 corner post and push or pull it until it's perfectly vertical while your helper nails a 2x4 diagonally across the wall to temporarily brace it. Slide the side walls into the slots in the siding and fit the 4x4 top plates into the notches. Nail the bottom plates to the 6x6 and connect the top 4x4s with two 6-in. pole barn nails.
Photo 15: Nail up the rafters
Mark and cut the rafters using the pattern rafter (Photo 11) as a template. Position the overhang rafters 3/4 in. back from the end of the overhanging 4x4 top plates to allow room for trim. If they don't land alongside an existing rafter, secure the tops as shown in Photo 16. Position the remaining new rafters alongside the existing rafter tails and connect them with three 16d nails every 12 in. Toenail the rafters to the 4x4 top plate with three 8d box nails.
Photo 16: Add joist hangers
Support the tops of the rafters that don't align with existing rafters with metal joist hangers. First nail a 2x6 block between two rafters and into the top plate if possible. Notch the rafter to fit into the metal 2x6 joist hanger. Pound special 1-1/2 in. joist hanger nails into every hole in the metal joist hanger
Next, mock up a wall and rafter to make exact patterns rather than using math (Photos 9 and 10). After you've marked where the rafter crosses the 4x4 top plate (Photo 10), subtract 5 in. (1-1/2 in. for the 2x4 bottom plate and 3-1/2 in. for the 4x4 top plate) from the high side to arrive at the length of the 4x4 wall posts (Photo 10). Cut all the posts off square at this length. Then assemble the walls and brace them plumb and square (Photos 13 and 14). To tie the side walls to the house, we cut out a slot in the siding and slid the 4x4 wall post against the sheathing. Then, since there were no studs in the existing wall at these locations, we added some from inside the garage to provide solid wood for attaching the walls. After nailing the walls in place, use a handsaw to cut out the bottom plates that run across the door openings.
Cut out a rafter pattern (Photo 11) and set it up on the walls to check the fit. This long rafter will need two “bird's-mouth” cuts, one to fit over the 4x4 top plate of the long front wall and one for the short 4x4 beam that holds up the lattice-covered overhanging section. Adjust the fit as needed and use the pattern to mark the remaining long rafters. Make a second pattern for the shorter rafters.
Sight along the top of the front wall to make sure it's straight before you secure the rafters.
Figure C: Finish Details
Note: You can download Figure C and enlarge it from the Additional Information below.
Step 4: Finish the roof
Photo 17: Install roof sheathing
Cut the 3/4-in. CDX plywood and nail it to the rafters with 8d box nails. Temporarily support the sheets with 2x6 blocks nailed to the subfascia. Align the sheets so the 8-ft. side is perpendicular to the rafters and stagger the joints on the 4-ft. ends. Space the sheets 1/8 in. apart.
Photo 19: Shingle the roof
Staple no. 30 roofing paper to the plywood. Start at the bottom and overlap each sheet 4 in. onto the one below. Install the shingles according to the instructions on the shingle wrapper. Snap chalk lines to ensure the slots in your new shingles align with those in the existing shingles.
With the rafters in place, nail down the roof plywood (Photo 17) and install the soffit plywood and fascia boards (Photo 18). Match the soffit and fascia details to those on your house.
When you cover the roof with roofing paper (Photo 19), tuck the new paper under the existing shingles and paper. Plan the shingle installation and chalk the lines so the old and new shingles line up (Photo 19). Fasten the shingles with 1-in. galvanized roofing nails according to the instructions on the wrapper. When you get to the top, carefully lift the old shingles and remove the first row of roofing nails with a flat pry bar to allow the new shingles to slide underneath.
Step 5: Finish the exterior and floor
Photo 21: Frame and install siding
Frame between the posts with 2x2s nailed flush with the inside surface of the 4x4 posts. Cut angled windowsills and drip caps on a table saw to fit between the posts at the top and bottom of each section. Nail the drip cap to the 2x4 bottom plate and screw the windowsill to the 2x2 frame. Fill each section with siding nailed to the 2x2 frame. Drill pilot holes for the nails to keep them from splitting the siding.
Photo 23: Hang the windows
Screw a 2-5/8 in. x 1-1/2 in. cedar board to the top of each window opening. Screw the hinges to this board. Nail 3/4 in. x 1-1/4 in. cedar stops to the top and bottom of the opening and 1/2 in. x 1-1/4 in. stops to the sides. Position the stops flush with the inside edge of the 4x4.
Photo 24: Trim and mortise the swinging door
Sand the door until it fits into the opening. Allow a 1/8-in. space on the sides and top. Cut enough from the bottom to allow at least 3/8-in. clearance above whatever flooring material you decide to use. Outline the 4x4 butt hinges with a utility knife and chisel mortises so the hinges will sit flush with the door. Screw the hinges to the door.
Photo 25: Hang the swinging door
Shim the door opening and mark the hinge positions on the 4x4 post. Remove the door and chisel the hinge mortises in the post. Screw the hinges to the post and nail 1x2 stops to the 4x4 door frame. Complete the installation by installing the lock according to the instructions included.
Photo 26: Build and hang the sliding door
Construct a sliding door by screwing 1x6 tongue-and-groove siding to a 1x4 frame. Attach a 1-1/2 in. x 2-in. strip of cedar to the horizontal 4x4 with 3/8-in. x 4-in. lag screws and mount the aluminum pocket door track to it. Hang the doors from pocket door wheels that ride in the track and snap into brackets mounted to the top of the door. Cover the track with a 1x4 cedar board.
Next, fill in the triangular sections above the wall on each end. Then close in the shed by filling the spaces between the posts (Photo 21). With our shed design, you don't have to install door and window jambs, but you do have to cut angles on the 3/4-in. x 2-3/4 in. drip cap that fits below the siding, and on the 2x4 windowsill. Use a table saw for these cuts and to rip a 2x4 down to 2-5/8 in. for the pieces above the windows (Fig. C). Photos 21 – 23 show how to install the siding and windows. For our floor we laid 18-in. square concrete patio pavers over a level bed of pea gravel. Cut the pavers along the walls and at the doors with a dry-cut diamond blade mounted in a circular saw. We also used the pavers to build a ramp into the yard from the sliding door.
Install the doors after the floor. Photos 24 and 25 show how to hang the entry door. Construct the sliding door by driving 1-1/4 in. galvanized or stainless steel screws through the backside of the 1x6 tongue-and-groove boards into a 1x4 cedar frame. Fig. D and Photo 26 show this detail and how to install the heavy-duty pocket door hardware and three-wheel rollers that suspend the door. Mount a 2x4 open bar holder bracket to the 6x6 to keep the bottom of the door from swinging out. We installed a barn door latch on the outside to secure the door.
Finally, you can customize the shed for your hobbies. To provide a separate planting area inside the shed, we built a wall of 2x6s spaced 30 in. apart and covered on the back with 1/2-in. plywood. Metal shelf standards and clips support 2x6 shelves for pots and planting supplies. We created a narrow, hollow space next to the windows to allow access to the window latch. Use the lattice-walled overhang to store a gas grill or to hold a potting bench like ours. Or use it as a vine-covered sitting area. Cut the cedar lattice panels to fit between the 4x4s and secure them with 1x2s nailed on each side. Make the bench top by screwing a 2x4 ledge to the 4x4 posts and cutting 2x6 cedar boards to rest on top.
To retain the natural look of your cedar shed, apply two or three coats of a top-quality clear exterior finish. Paint the door and exterior trim with alkyd primer and two coats of top-quality exterior latex paint.
Figure D: Sliding Door Details
Note: You can download Figure D and enlarge it from the Additional Information below.